Journal of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Robust correlation coefficient goodness-of-fit test for the Gumbel distribution <p><strong>Background &amp; Aim:</strong> A single outlier can even have a large disturbing effect on a classical statistical method that is optimal under the classical assumptions. One of the powerful goodness-offit tests is the correlation coefficient test, however this test suffers from the presence of outliers.<br /><strong>Methods &amp; Materials:</strong> This study provides a simple robust method for test of goodness of fit for the Gumbel distribution [extreme value distribution (EVD) type I family] through using the new diagnostic tool called the “Forward Search” (FS) method. The FS version of this test was introduce in the present study, which is not affected by the outliers.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> A new robust method for testing the goodness-of-fit for Gumbel distribution has been presented. The approach gives information about the distribution of majority of the data and the percentage of contamination.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A new robust method for testing the goodness-of-fit for the Gumbel distribution has been presented. The simple and fast method have been used to find distribution of proposed statistic. In addition, using the transformation study, an application to the two-parameter Weibull distribution has been investigated. The performance and the ability of this procedure to capture the structure of data have been illustrated by some simulation studies.</p> Abbas Mahdavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-13 2018-08-13 4 1 30 35 Incidence of complications among infants born from addicted mothers in Fatemieh hospital in Shahroud City, Iran <p><strong>Background &amp; Aim:</strong> Mothers addicted to drugs may transfer their addiction to the embryo and there would be numerous complications for mothers and infants because of the addiction. The current study was performed aimed at investigating complications of drug abuse among infants born from addicted mothers in Fatemieh hospital in Shahroud City, Iran.<br /><strong>Methods &amp; Materials:</strong> This study was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in cross-sectional manner. The study was carried out on 995 infants born in Fatemieh hospital of Shahroud City in 2011. Data were collected using two questionnaires including demographic characteristics and maternal and neonatal addiction complications.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that 1.5% of mothers delivered in Fatemieh hospital were addicted to opioid drug. The opium was the most consumed drug by the addicted mothers in this study. Substance abuse during pregnancy put the infants in the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW), admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), restlessness, and lack of feeding well. In addition, abnormal crying, tremors and muscle rigidity, tachypnea, vomiting, convulsions, diarrhea, hyperreflexia, and fever were observed among babies born from the addicted mothers. There was a significant relationship between LBW and cesarean section (C-section) with drug use among mothers (P &lt; 0.050).<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Given increasing incidence of addiction among pregnant women, attention to informing about these complications during prenatal period is necessary.</p> Zahra Masoumi Arezoo Shayan Salimeh Azizi Afsaneh Sadeghian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-13 2018-08-13 4 1 24 29 Assessment of observing nursing job descriptions in Sabzevar City, Iran <p><strong>Background &amp; Aim:</strong> Nursing occupation is an activity based on the moral and legal obligations. One of the important responsibilities of nurses is to gain knowledge and observe the laws and regulations related to their profession. The most important role of nurses is to restore health through care activities. Nurses can fulfill their tasks only when they have enough knowledge on their duties and responsibilities. One of the important tasks of nursing managers is to prepare nursing staff members and ensure the correctness of their performance for the assigned activities. Therefore, the present study was performed aiming to investigate barriers and provide solutions for performing nursing tasks.<br /><strong>Methods &amp; Materials:</strong> This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 120 nurses, midwives, and nursing managers working in Vasei Hospital and Emdad Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Sabzevar City, Iran. The nurses were selected through stratified random sampling method. The study instruments included demographic information questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire on the organizational task description including 41 questions related to nursing and quality of life (QOL). Data were analyzed by SPSS software.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age and clinical experience of the study subjects were 29.11 ± 4.67 and 6.40 ± 11.30 years, respectively. Participants included 42 (35%) and 78 (65%) men and women, respectively. 62%, 33%, and 5% of the subjects were nurses, practical nurses, and managing nurses, respectively. The results showed that the inappropriateness of the number of nurses and patients and the use of newly recruited forces in the managerial dimension, shortage of in-service and retraining courses in hospitals in the educational dimension, inadequate welfare and recreational facilities and increasing wages in the motivational dimension, and the lack of necessary space and nurses' working hours in the environmental and professional dimension were the most important barriers.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In order to solve problems, proposed solutions, criteria and scores, and ultimately, top solutions in each area are presented separately. In the managerial-executive field, disparity between nurses and patients has been reported as the main factor. In the professional environment, the high volume of nursing hours has been reported per week, and in the field of individuality and nursing, insufficient salary and wages of the subjects are barriers to performing nursing tasks.</p> mehdi jamalinik Ali Vahidi-Sabzevar Mohammad Siavoshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-13 2018-08-13 4 1 17 23 Factors affecting the intensity of nurses’ lower limbs’ varicose veins in the hospitals of North Khorasan, Iran, in 2016 <p><strong>Background &amp; Aim:</strong> Varicose vein (VV) is known as the most prevalent venous disease which has many complications. Since this is a hard healing disease which imposes a large burden on individual and society, and also has high mortality, many studies begin to assess risk factors in their population.<br /><strong>Methods &amp; Materials:</strong> Participants were examined by a cardiovascular specialist and their VVs were graded by CEAP criteria. The patients filled a four-part researcher-made questionnaire of demography, occupation, quality of life (QOL), and lifestyle. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> We found that sex, age, pregnancy, child number, family history, standing, sitting, walking, weight, body mass index (BMI), overtime, and work experience have significant effects on VV intensity. Multiple logistic regression shows that standing (OR = 13.850), sitting (OR = 4.850), pregnancy (OR = 2.002), age (OR = 1.219), and overtime (OR = 1.029) are the most effective demographic and occupational factors. Age and sex adjusted demographic and occupational factors show that only pregnancy factor is affected. Life style factors show that physical activity (OR = 4.038), as well as weight control and nutrition (OR = 3.760) have significant effect on VV intensity. It is also found that symptoms intensity have significant relationship with VV intensity (OR = 4.048). It means that increasing VV intensity causes a 4-fold decrease of QOL.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is revealed that most of the effective factors on VV intensity are secondary factors which are preventable.</p> Mehri Bozorgnezha Samaneh Nodehi Nodehi Mehdi Keyvan Keyvan Salimeh Azizi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-13 2018-08-13 4 1 36 46 Moral intelligence and aggression in students <p><strong>Background &amp; Aim:</strong> Moral intelligence is one of the dimensions of intelligence that can provide a framework for the proper function of the individual. Nursing and midwifery students’ performance is of great importance because of the moral and humanistic nature of their profession. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the relationship between moral intelligence and aggression among nursing and midwifery students.<strong><br />Methods &amp; Materials:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 nursing and midwifery students. Participants were selected through census method. Data were collected by Lennick and Kiel’s moral intelligence questionnaire and Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the mean scores of students' ethical intelligence was (73.2 ± 8.2) with a range of 32 to 100, and the mean scores of students' aggression was (69.3 ± 17.8) with a range of 38 to 143. Moral intelligence had a meaningful and moderate negative correlation with aggressiveness (r = -0.150, P = 0.040).<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Regarding the findings of this research which shows the relationship between moral intelligence and students' aggression, it is suggested that efforts be made to strengthen students' ethical values.</p> marziyeh raisi Hoda Ahmari Tehran Sareh Bakouei Somayeh Momenuan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-13 2018-08-13 4 1 1 9