Journal of Biostatistics and Epidemiology 2015. 1(1-2):59-69.

Case-crossover and case-time-control studies: concepts, design, and analysis
SeyedSaeed Hashemi-Nazari, MohammadAli Mansournia


Background  & Aim: Case-crossover  studies are the case-control  version of crossover studies. In these studies, cases and controls are the same subjects. The term crossover is applied for designs that all subjects pass through both treatment (exposure) and placebo (non-exposure) phases. In fact they are  crossover  of  subjects  between  periods  of  exposure  and  non-exposure.  This  design  is  most suitable for outcomes, which their induction time is short. Whatever the onset of outcome is more abrupt, it is more amenable to be studied in case-crossover  studies. Case-crossover  design can be implemented  in a number  of ways. In this article  some common  terms in the literature  of case- crossover  studies,  major  concerns  in  selection  of  controls,  different  ways  for  designing  case- crossover studies, some examples for analyzing these data according to different sampling designs and  also  design  and  analysis  of  case-time-control   designs  with  practical  examples  are  being explored.


case-crossover, case-time-control,design and analysis

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