Incidence of complications among infants born from addicted mothers in Fatemieh hospital in Shahroud City, Iran
Background & Aim: Mothers addicted to drugs may transfer their addiction to the embryo and there would be numerous complications for mothers and infants because of the addiction. The current study was performed aimed at investigating complications of drug abuse among infants born from addicted mothers in Fatemieh hospital in Shahroud City, Iran.
Methods & Materials: This study was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in cross-sectional manner. The study was carried out on 995 infants born in Fatemieh hospital of Shahroud City in 2011. Data were collected using two questionnaires including demographic characteristics and maternal and neonatal addiction complications.
Results: Results showed that 1.5% of mothers delivered in Fatemieh hospital were addicted to opioid drug. The opium was the most consumed drug by the addicted mothers in this study. Substance abuse during pregnancy put the infants in the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW), admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), restlessness, and lack of feeding well. In addition, abnormal crying, tremors and muscle rigidity, tachypnea, vomiting, convulsions, diarrhea, hyperreflexia, and fever were observed among babies born from the addicted mothers. There was a significant relationship between LBW and cesarean section (C-section) with drug use among mothers (P < 0.050).
Conclusion: Given increasing incidence of addiction among pregnant women, attention to informing about these complications during prenatal period is necessary.
King JC. Substance abuse in pregnancy. A bigger problem than you think. Postgrad Med 1997; 102(3): 135-5, 149.
Afshari R, Majdzadeh R, Balali-Mood M. Pattern of acute poisonings in Mashhad, Iran 1993-2000. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2004; 42(7): 965-75.
Kelly L, Dooley J, Cromarty H, Minty B, Morgan A, Madden S, et al. Narcotic-exposed neonates in a First Nations population in northwestern Ontario:Incidence and implications. Can Fam Physician 2011; 57(11): e441-e447.
Addition. Tehran, Iran: Radio Salamat; 2009.
Khajedaluee M, Dadgar Moghadam M. Maternal substance abuse and the child's addiction during adolescence and young adulthood. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil 2013; 16(52): 1-7. [In Persian].
Barazandeh-Ahmadabadi S, Afshari R. Body mass index (BMI) in chronic use of opioids. Proceedings of the 6th Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology; 2007 Dec. 12-14; Bangkok, Thailand.
Salari Z, Mirzaie F, Mehran M. Evaluation of Relationship between Opioid Addiction and Placental Abruption. Avicenna J Clin Med 2007; 14(1): 39-43.
Holmes AV, McLeod AY, Bunik M. ABM Clinical Protocol #5: Peripartum breastfeeding management for the healthy mother and infant at term, revision 2013. Breastfeed Med 2013; 8(6): 469-73.
Bashore RA, Ketchum JS, Staisch KJ, Barrett CT, Zimmermann EG. Heroin addiction and pregnancy. West J Med 1981; 134(6): 506-14.
Cengiz H, Dagdeviren H, Karaahmet O, Kaya C, Ekin M. Maternal and neonatal effects of substance abuse during pregnancy: A case report. Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013; 51(2): 76-9.
Kennare R, Heard A, Chan A. Substance use during pregnancy: Risk factors and obstetric and perinatal outcomes in South Australia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2005; 45(3): 220-5.
Crome IB, Kumar MT. Epidemiology of drug and alcohol use in young women. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 12(2): 98-105.
Ramezanzadeh F, Tavafian S, Vahdaninia M, Shariat M, Montazeri A. Maternal and fetal outcomes of narcotic substance abuse, cigarette smoking, and unsafe drugs duringpregnancy. Hakim Health Sys Res 2007; 10(3): 9-16. [In Persian].
Gargari S, Fallahian S, Haghighi M, Hosseinnezhad Yazdi L, Dashti M, Sahebdel Nobari E. Perinatal complications in substance using in pregnancy. Razi J Med Sci 2011; 18(86): 22-30. [In Persian].
Hilton TC. Breastfeeding considerations of opioid dependent mothers and infants. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2012; 37(4): 236-40.
Abdel-Latif ME, Bajuk B, Lui K, Oei J. Short-term outcomes of infants of substance-using mothers admitted to neonatal intensive care units in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. J Paediatr Child Health 2007; 43(3): 127-33.
Javan R, Delbari A, Tabaraei Y, Hashemian M, Ahmari Tehran H. A study of the association between drug abuse and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in mothers in Sabzevar city, Iran. Qom Univ Med Sci J 2014; 8(3): 55-60. [In Persian].
Sharifian J, Jahanian M, Tavassoli F, Tavassoli S, AfzalAghaee M, Afshari R, et al. The fate of motherhood, fetuses and neonates in drug addicted pregnant women. J Shaheed Sadoughi Univ Med Sci 2011; 19(2): 183-91. [In Persian].
Forray A. Substance use during pregnancy. F1000Res 2016; 5.
Mahmoudian AR, Boroushaki MT, Molkizadeh F. Assessment of some complications obtained from male mice's addiction to morphine on first generation of offspring. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2006; 9(1): 50-4.
Thaithumyanon P, Limpongsanurak S, Praisuwanna P, Punnahitanon S. Perinatal effects of amphetamine and heroin use during pregnancy on the mother and infant. J Med Assoc Thai 2005; 88(11): 1506-13.