Journal of Biostatistics and Epidemiology 2016. 2(2):60-67.

Clinical epidemiology and treatment findings of patients with tuberculosis in Babol city, Iran (2009-2013)
Hossein Ali Nikbakht, Seyed Reza Hosseini, Heidar Sharifi-Fathabad, Amin Daemi, Rahmat Habibzade, Saber Ghaffari-Fam


Background & Aim: Nowadays tuberculosis (TB) is one of the public health concerns in Iran. The present study aimed to examine the clinical epidemiology and treatment findings of tuberculosis in Babol, Northern Iran.
Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was carried out on medical records of tuberculosis registry pertained to Health Center of Babol, Mazandaran province, Iran. The investigated variables included demographic characteristics and some clinical patterns. To present the findings the descriptive statistics such as mean (standard deviation, SD) and frequency (and relative frequency) were used. Analytical statistics was applied by using chi-square test and independent samples Student’s t-test.

Results: The average age of 200 patients infected with tuberculosis was 47.5 years (SD = 21.4), and 58.5% of the cases were male. In both genders, age groups 18-38 years comprised the greatest percentage. During the 5 years study period, 95% of the patients received treatment protocol 1 (including new cases with positive smear, negative smear, and extra-pulmonary). At the end of treatment, 90.5% were improved or treatment period was completed. The most important clinical symptoms in referring the patients to the therapeutic centers were cough (75.1%) and fever (60.9%).
Conclusion: Education and giving information to general population about the most important clinical symptoms of tuberculosis such as fever and cough might be effective in early detection and prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Then effective treatment might decrease the burden of the disease.


Tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Risk factors; Clinical Patterns; Iran

Full Text:



Brosch R, Gordon SV, Marmiesse M, Brodin P, Buchrieser C, Eiglmeier K, et al. A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99(6): 3684-9.

Riemann HP, Abbas B. Diagnosis and control of bovine paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 1983; 27: 481-506.

Bawri S, Ali S, Phukan C, Tayal B, Baruwa P. A study of sputum conversion in new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases at the monthly intervals of 1, 2 & 3 month under directly observed treatment, short course (dots) regimen. Lung India 2008; 25(3): 118-23.

Hassan ZJ, Nasehi M, Rezaianzadeh A, Tabatabaee H, Rajaeifard A, Ghaderi E. Pattern of reported tuberculosis cases in Iran 2009-2010. Iran J Public Health 2013; 42(1): 72-8.

Yazdani Charati J, Kazemnejad A, Mosazadeh M. An epidemiological study on the reported cases of tuberculosis in Mazandaran (1999-2008) using spatial design. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2010; 19(74): 9-16. [In Persian].

Nasrollahi A, Khalilian A. Evaluation of treatment results in patients with drugresistant TB and compliance with treatment regimens in the province. Urmia Med J 2003; 14(4): 295-303. [In Persian].

Organizaci ◌َn Mundial de la Salud. WHO Report 2011: Global Tuberculosis Control. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2011.

Harries AD, Dye C. Tuberculosis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2006; 100(5-6): 415-31.

Kumaresan JA, Ahsan Ali AK, Parkkali LM. Tuberculosis control in Bangladesh: success of the DOTS strategy. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998; 2(12): 992-8.

Senkoro M, Mfinanga SG, Morkve O. Smear microscopy and culture conversion rates among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10: 210.

Banu Rekha VV, Balasubramanian R, Swaminathan S, Ramachandran R, Rahman F, Sundaram V, et al. Sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase of Category-1 regimen in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus or HIV infection: An analysis of risk factors. Indian J Med Res 2007; 126(5): 452-8.

World Health Organization. Tuberculosis: factsheet no. 104 [Online]. [cited 2008]; Available from: URL: 104/en/index.html

Anoosheh S, Farnia P, Kargar M. Association between TNF-Alpha (-857)

Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Tuberculosis. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2011; 13(4): 243-8.

Sharifirad GR, Hazavehei MH, Mohebi S, Rahimi M, Hasan Zadeh A. The effect of educational programme based on health belief model (HBM) on the foot care by type ii diabetic patients. Iran J Endocrinol Metab 2006; 8(3): 231-9.

World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2014.

Velaiati AA. Tuberculosis. In: Azizi F, Hatami H, Janghorbani M, Editors. Epidemiology and control of common disorders in Iran. 2nd ed. Tehran, Iran: Khosravi Press; 2004. p. 602-17. [In Persian].

Mohammadpour A, Fani MJ, Motalebi M, Shams H. Epdmiolgy of tuberculosis disease during 1372-80 in Gonabad city. Ofogh-e- Danesh 2001; 8(1): 45-51. [In Persian].

Khazaei S, Roshanaei G, Saatchi M, Rezaeian S, Zahiri A, Bathaei SJ. The epidemiological

aspects of tuberculosis in Hamadan Province during 2005-11. Int J Health Policy Manag 2014; 2(2): 75-80. [In Persian].

Gholami A, Gharah Aghaji R, Mousavi Jahromi L, Sadaghianifar A. Epidemiologic survey of pulmonary tuberculosis in Urmia city during 2004-2007. Knowledge Health 2009; 4(3): 19-23. [In Persian].

Alaei K, Mansouri S, Alaei A. Study on the prevalance rate of clinical tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Kermanshah province. 1998-2001. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2002; 12(35): 20-30. [In Persian].

Babamahmoodi F, Alikhani A, Yazdani CJ, Ghovvati A, Ahangarkani F, Delavarian L, et al. Clinical epidemiology and paraclinical findings in tuberculosis patients in north of Iran. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015: 381572.

World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control: WHO Report 2010. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010.

Hoa NB, Wei C, Sokun C, Lauritsen JM, Rieder HL. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 367.

Masjedi MR, Fadaizadeh L, Taghizadeh AR.

Notification of patients with tuberculosis detected in the private sector, Tehran, Iran. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007; 11(8): 882-6.

Nasehi MM, Moosazadeh M, Amiresmaeili M, Parsaee MR, Nezammahalleh A. Epidemiology of factors associated with

detection and treatment out comes of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis: a population based study using univariate and multivariate analysis. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2012; 21(1): 10-9. [In Persian].

Abassi A, Aarabi M. The efficacy of DOTS strategy in treatment or failure of treatment in respiratory Tuberculosis. J Gorgan Uni Med Sci 2004; 6(1): 78-82. [In Persian].

Yekrang SH, Jannati A, AsghariJafarabadi M, Ebrahimi-Kalan M, Taheri A, Koosha A. The Effectiveness of family-based DOTS versus professional-family mix DOTS in treating smears positive tuberculosis. Health

Promot Perspect 2014; 4(1): 98-106.

Nasehi M, Mirhagani L. National directory for combating TB. 1st ed. Tehran, Iran: Andishmand Publication; 2010. [In Persian].

Shoraka H, Hoseini H, Alizade H, Alavinya M. Epidemiology of tuberculosis and other related factors in the province of North Khorasan, Iran, 2005-2010. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci 2011; 3(3): 43-50. [In Persian]. 30. Hasoumi M, Nasehi M, Khakian M, Mohseni M, Ziaiifar H, Keykale MS. Cost of illness of

tuberculosis in tehran in the year 2011. Mater Sociomed 2014; 26(5): 339-42.

Farazi A, Sofian M, Jabbariasl M, Keshavarz S. Adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in iranian tuberculosis patients. Tuberc Res Treat 2014; 2014.

Ayatollahi S, Khavendegaran F. Prevalence of the side-effects of anti- tb drugs in tubercularpatients in Shiraz, 2001-2002. Armaghanedanesh 2004; 9(1): 53-61. [In Persian].

Taramian S, Joukar M, Asgharnezhad M, Biabani A, Mansour Ghanee F. Side effects of first-line anti tuberculosis drugs. J Guilan Univ Med Sci 2013; 22(85): 42-7. [In Persian].

Boloursaz MR, Khalilzadeh S, Baghaie N, Khodayari AA, Velayati AA. Radiologic

manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted in pediatric ward-Massih Daneshvari Hospital: a 5-year retrospective study. Acta Med Iran 2010; 48(4): 244-9.

Baghaei P, Tabarsi P, Abrishami Z, Mirsaeidi M, Faghani YA, Mansouri SD, et al.

Comparison of Pulmonary TB Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus Type II. Tanaffos 2010; 9(2): 13-20. [In Persian].

Mousavi SG, Saberi HR, Sharif AR, Ghorbani F, Shadkam M, Vojdani S, et al. A comparative study of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and extra- pulmonary tuberculosis in Kashan. Feyz 2009; 13(3): 235-41.

Alavi SM, Khoshkho MM, Salmanzadeh S, Eghtesad M. Comparison of epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and radiological features of hospitalized diabetic and non-diabetic patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at Razi hospital in Ahvaz. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014; 7(9): e12447. [In Persian].

Margolis B, Al-Darraji HA, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL. Prevalence of tuberculosis symptoms and latent tuberculous infection among prisoners in northeastern Malaysia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013; 17(12): 1538-44.

Jimenez-Corona ME, Cruz-Hervert LP, Garcia-Garcia L, Ferreyra-Reyes L, Delgado- Sanchez G, Bobadilla-Del-Valle M, et al. Association of diabetes and tuberculosis: impact on treatment and post-treatment outcomes. Thorax 2013; 68(3): 214-20.

Wang CH, Yu CT, Lin HC, Liu CY, Kuo HP. Hypodense alveolar macrophages in patients with diabetes mellitus and active pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuber Lung Dis 1999; 79(4): 235-42.

Yaghini N, Mahmoodi M, Asadikaram GR, Hassanshahi GH, Khoramdelazad H, Kazemi AM. Serum levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2011; 13(10): 752.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.