Original Article

Growth Characteristics of Four Low-and Middle-Income Countries Children Born just After the Millennium Development Goals


Introduction: Socioeconomic inequality among low- and middle-income countries has an immense impact on the growth characteristics of children. Consequently, the millennium development goals were established for  action to fight poverty and reduce the health problems for most disadvantaged groups.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth characteristics and correlates of height growth among children in low- and middle-income countries. 

Methods: Data from the Young Lives study conducted in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam for 15 years were used. A linear mixed-effects fractional polynomial modeling approach was used to analyze the growth characteristics and to assess the determinants. 

Results: There was a significant growth difference in height among children in low- and middle-income countries. Children in Vietnam grew at a faster rate during the entire period considered (1-15 years). In four countries, children grew very quickly in early childhood and the growth rates slow down gradually during the consecutive years. The results show that factors such as gender, parents’ education, household size, wealth index, access to sanitation, fathers’ age and residence area are significantly associated with child growth. 

Conclusion: The functional relationship between height growth and time is nonlinear. Males are taller than females at an early childhood age. Children from the most educated father and mother had been taller than those from the least educated father and mother. The effect of the household wealth index is positive on height growth, while the effect of household size is negative.

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IssueVol 7 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jbe.v7i2.6710
Fractional polynomial Growth rate; Random effects Time transformation

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wake S, Zewotir T, Muluneh E. Growth Characteristics of Four Low-and Middle-Income Countries Children Born just After the Millennium Development Goals. jbe. 2021;7(2):108-119.