Original Article

Assessing the Effective Factors on Depression in Khuzestan Women


Introduction: Depression is one of the main problems and disrupting daily life activities in women. Due to the important role of women in society and the effect of depression on this group activity the aims of the current study was to investigate of the identification effective factors on women's depression in Khuzestan province.
Method: In this cross-sectional study, 899 women who referred to health centers in Ahwaz were selected by cluster sampling method. For analysis purpose, multivariate and univariate linear regression was used. All analysis performed by SPSS version 19 with regarding α: 0.05 for the significant level.
Results: in case of effective factors on depression score, number of Education Years, Competence score, Relatedness score, Autonomy score, Presence of Meaning in Life score, Search for Meaning in Life score had the significant effect on depression score (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Education level, marital status, education level, Social Competence, relatedness, Autonomy; Presence of meaning in life, Search for meaning in life and Depression are effective factors on depression so focusing on this factors can have the very important role in prevention programs.

1. Smith LL, CH. E. Demystifying and defeating depression2003. p. 9-20 p.
2. Nazemi L, Skoog I, Karlsson I, Hosseini S, Hosseini M, Hosseinzadeh MJ, et al. Depression, prevalence and some risk factors in elderly nursing homes in Tehran, Iran. Iranian journal of public health. 2013;42(6):559.
3. MOHAMMAD BA, MOHAMMAD SN, Ghamari F, SALEHI B. Depression symptoms prevalence, general health status and its risk factors in dormitory students of Arak universities in 2008. 2009.
4. Aktas S, Calik KY. Factors affecting depression during pregnancy and the correlation between social support and pregnancy depression. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2015;17(9).
5. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet. 1997;349(9064):1498-504.
6. Flynn HA, Spino C, Guille C, Deligiannidis KM, Maki P, Jahnke J, et al. A Collaborative, Network-Based Approach to Advance Women's Depression Research in the United States: Preliminary Findings. Journal of Women's Health. 2018;27(1):51-7.
7. Al-Sharbati Z. Re: Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2009;9(3):359.
8. Shivappa N, Schoenaker DA, Hebert JR, Mishra GD. Association between the inflammatory potential of diet and risk of depression in middle-aged women: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. British Journal of Nutrition. 2016;116(6):1077-86.
9. De Oliveira G, Cianelli R, Gattamorta K, Kowalski N, Peragallo N. Social Determinants of Depression Among Hispanic Women. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. 2017;23(1):28-36.
10. Dudal P, Bracke P. Absolute and relative educational inequalities in depression in Europe. International journal of public health. 2016;61(7):787-95.
11. Freeman A, Tyrovolas S, Koyanagi A, Chatterji S, Leonardi M, Ayuso-Mateos JL, et al. The role of socio-economic status in depression: results from the COURAGE (aging survey in Europe). BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1098.
12. Giri M, Chen T, Yu W, Lü Y. Prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment and depression among elderly people in the world’s fastest growing city, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China. Clinical interventions in aging. 2016;11:1091. 13. Kanmogne GD, Qiu F, Ntone FE, Fonsah JY, Njamnshi DM, Kuate CT, et al. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education, and gender. PloS one. 2017;12(2):e0171956.
14. Munhoz TN, Nunes BP, Wehrmeister FC, Santos IS, Matijasevich A. A nationwide population-based study of depression in Brazil. Journal of affective disorders. 2016;192:22633.
15. Patra P, Alikari V, Fradelos EC, Sachlas A, Kourakos M, Gil APR, et al. Assessment of depression in the elderly. Is perceived social support related? A nursing home study. GeNeDis 2016: Springer; 2017. p. 139-50.
16. Turgunova L, Laryushina Y, Turmukhambetova A, Koichubekov B, Sorokina M, Korshukov I. The Incidence of Depression among the Population of Central Kazakhstan and Its Relationship with Sociodemographic Characteristics. Behavioral neurology. 2017;2017.
17. Di Florio A, Putnam K, Altemus M, Apter G, Bergink V, Bilszta J, et al. The impact of education, country, race and ethnicity on the self-report of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Psychological medicine. 2017;47(5):787-99.
18. Lojko D, Czajkowska A, Suwalska A, Palys W, Jaracz K, Górna K, et al. Symptoms of depression among adults in rural areas of western Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 2015;22(1).
19. Childs H, Schneider H, Dula C. Adolescent adjustment: Maternal depression and social competence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 2001;9(2-3):175-84.
20. Epkins CC, Seegan PL. Motherreported and children’s perceived social and academic competence in clinic-referred youth: Unique relations to depression and/or social anxiety and the role of self-perceptions. Child Psychiatry & Human Development. 2015;46(5):656-70.
21. Gable SL, Shean GD. Perceived social competence and depression. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 2000;17(1):13950. 22. Ostrander R, Crystal DS, August G. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and self-and other-assessments of social competence: a developmental study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2006;34(6):772-86.
23. Smari J, PORSTEINSDÓTTIR V. Social anxiety and depression in adolescents in relation to perceived competence and situational appraisal. Journal of Adolescence. 2001;24(2):199-207.
24. Uhrlass DJ, Schofield CA, Coles ME, Gibb BE. Self-perceived competence and prospective changes in symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 2009;40(2):32937.
25. Velimirović I, Vranko M, Ferić M, Brečić P, editors. Social competence and depression at the time of the Great refugee crisis: European context. Differences in social competence self-assesment of patientes diagnosed with depression due to the form of treatment. 7th EUSPR Conference and Members' Meeting: Sustainable prevention in a changing world; 2016.
26. Wang Y, Dix T. Mothers' early depressive symptoms predict children's low social competence in first grade: Mediation by children's social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2015;56(2):18392.
27. Williams KL, Galliher RV. Predicting depression and self–esteem from social connectedness, support, and competence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2006;25(8):855-74.
28. Moon SH, Cho HH. Gender differences in self-competence, social anxiety and depression in upper level primary school children. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing. 2010;16(3):230-8.
29. Balkir N, Arens EA, Barnow S. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: When does culture matter? International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2013;59(5):48292.
30. Dinger U, Barrett MS, Zimmermann J, Schauenburg H, Wright AG, Renner F, et al. Interpersonal problems, dependency, and selfcriticism in major depressive disorder. Journal of clinical psychology. 2015;71(1):93-104.
31. Gauthier L, Guay F, Senécal C, Pierce T. Women’s depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood: The role of competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Journal of Health Psychology. 2010;15(8):1145-56.
32. Kopala-Sibley DC, Zuroff DC, Hankin BL, Abela JR. The development of selfcriticism and dependency in early adolescence and their role in the development of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 2015;41(8):1094-109.
33. Ryan S, McGuire B. Psychological predictors of pain severity, pain interference, depression, and anxiety in rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic pain. British journal of health psychology. 2016;21(2):336-50.
34. Seo S, Jeon J, Chong Y, An J. The relations among relatedness needs, subjective well-being, and depression of Korean elderly. Journal of women & aging. 2015;27(1):17-34.
35. Souesme G, Martinent G, Ferrand C. Perceived autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction, depressive symptoms and apathy in French hospitalized older people. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. 2016;65:70-8.
36. Bekker MH, Belt U. The role of autonomy-connectedness in depression and anxiety. Depression and anxiety. 2006;23(5):274-80.
37. Bamonti P, Lombardi S, Duberstein PR, King DA, Van Orden KA. Spirituality attenuates the association between depression symptom severity and meaning in life. Aging & mental health. 2016;20(5):494-9.
38. Blackburn L, Owens GP. The effect of self efficacy and meaning in life on posttraumatic stress disorder and depression severity among veterans. J Clin Psychol. 2015;71(3):219-28.
39. Chow EO. The role of meaning in life: mediating the effects of perceived knowledge of stroke on depression and life satisfaction among stroke survivors. Clinical rehabilitation. 2017;31(12):1664-73.
40. Du H, Li X, Chi P, Zhao J, Zhao G. Meaning in life, resilience, and psychological well-being among children affected by parental HIV. AIDS care. 2017;29(11):1410-6.
41. Krause N. Evaluating the stressbuffering function of meaning in life among older people. Journal of aging and health. 2007;19(5):792-812.
42. Munoz M, Santos-Olmo AB, Sehner S, Weber K, Wegscheider K, Wittchen HU, et al. Aging & mental health.
43. Owens GP, Steger MF, Whitesell AA, Herrera CJ. Posttraumatic stress disorder, guilt, depression, and meaning in life among military veterans. Journal of traumatic stress. 2009;22(6):654-7.
44. Steger MF, Mann JR, Michels P, Cooper TC. Meaning in life, anxiety, depression, and general health among smoking cessation patients. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2009;67(4):353-8.
45. Volkert J, Harter M, Dehoust MC, Ausin B, Canuto A, Da Ronch C, et al. The role of meaning in life in community-dwelling older adults with depression and relationship to other risk factors. 2017:1-7.
46. Dezutter J, Luyckx K, Wachholtz A. Meaning in life in chronic pain patients over time: associations with pain experience and psychological well-being. Journal of behavioral medicine. 2015;38(2):384-96.
47. Van der Heyden K, Dezutter J, Beyers W. Meaning in Life and depressive symptoms: a person-oriented approach in residential and community-dwelling older adults. Aging & mental health. 2015;19(12):1063-70.
48. Hadidi N, Treat-Jacobson DJ, Lindquist R. Poststroke depression and functional outcome: a critical review of the literature. Heart & lung : the journal of critical care. 2009;38(2):151-62.
IssueVol 4 No 4 (2018) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Khuzestan Depression women

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Sepandi M, Taghdir M, Akarzadeh I, Khodamoradi F, Alimohamadi Y. Assessing the Effective Factors on Depression in Khuzestan Women. jbe. 2019;4(4):252-258.